Organization of the Material
The most important thing about a man is what he believes in the depth of his being. This is the thing that makes him what he is, the thing that organizes him and feeds him; the thing that keeps him going in the face of untoward circumstances; the thing that gives him resistance and drive. -- Hugh S. Tigner
The present volume penetrates into the history of language teaching and language learning and excoriates the TLM/Banking Method in order to justify a turn from the traditional methods towards more humanistic approaches to ELT/Education like CLT, Interactive Learning, and particularly CL methods. After analysing interactive approaches like CL, the book focuses exclusively on my innovative instructional approach, CTBL, through different dimensions.
To be more specific, this manual consists of 8 sections with 13 chapters. The first four chapters intend to lay the grounds to a thorough introduction to my innovation. And the last nine chapters dwell – at length – elaborating my instructional approach. Each chapter begins with a set of 'Advance Organiser Questions' and ends with a set of 'Discussion Questions' followed by few questions, which are in essence some 'Food for Thought'. The thought-provoking questions included in these three sections aim at stimulating critical sensibility, analytical thinking, creative reasoning, and professional and personal growth of the readers. It should be noted that although, at first sight, some of these questions may be found a little bit more challenging, they would seem easier after the book is studied cover to cover. Some questions, particularly in the last chapter, may also, i hope, inspire readers to consider further investigation and research, in the concerned areas.
The First Chapter is a significant tour through the chronological development of language teaching methodology. It brings into sharp focus such a development in an attempt to illuminate the dynamics and flexibility of the profession in the ever changing context of our planet. The chapter elucidates the process under which interactive approaches like CL have emerged. Prominent characteristics as well as major deficiencies of widely adopted methods and approaches like CLT have also been elaborated. More importantly, the chapter highlights the impact of my ideology on the field of education in general and ELT in particular. The chapter prioritizes the vital significance of CTBL, as a totally different systematically structured approach to ELT/Education, for the present context of globalisation, which is highly complicated and fiercely competitive. The Chapter also brings to light the impact of the Cyber Age on ELT/Education, and emphasises the need for the rapid calculated adaptability of the profession with the emerging research-oriented trends and innovations. The chapter tries to stress on the fact that such changes and developments are as the responses to ever growing demands of learners’ needs which have been occasioned by the realities of their milieus.
Chapter 2 endeavours to justify the relevance and significance of a pragmatic overhauling of the present antediluvian dictatorial instructional systems not only in the present-day context but also for the future, for the benefit of future generations. After bringing to the fore the significant role of English as the international lingua franca in today world context, this chapter presents a view of the language classes that are run through the TLM or the Banking Method. It seeks to dissect and mirror the present contexts of learning in Education in general, and in ELT sphere in particular in most parts of the world, including the Middle East, Asia, Africa, and even Europe and America. The chapter deals with statement of bare facts and tries to profile the deficiencies of (language) learning classes occasioned by the present traditional didactic modes of instruction like the Banking Method. The destructive implications of the implementation of such educational methods and approaches have been spotlighted both at class level and at social/global level. Against this backdrop, i try to recalibrate (educational) policy makers' and language specialists’ attention from the traditional expository or even interactive methods and approaches like CLT, which is - unfortunately - strongly recommended even by some eminent professors, towards the approach i have developed as a pragmatic solution to our present socio-educational/cultural/economical/political problems.
The 3rd chapter casts light on different interpersonal learning goal structures in order to lay the grounds to an introduction to Cooperative (Language) Learning. Also, after distinguishing Collaborative Learning, Interactive Learning, and CL from one another, the chapter highlights main differences between cooperative language learning, the major focus of which is on groupwork, which is of paramount importance in language classes, and the traditional language teaching.
The forth chapter is a significant attempt for bringing together some popular CL methods. It also brings into focus the method (TT) i have developed. After a brief but to the point introduction to each method, the chapter discusses their main characteristics - at the class level - and then explicates their evaluation systems.
Having dissected part of the socio-educational/political background to my instructional innovation, Chapter 5 clarifies certain misgivings regarding integrating the element of competition within cooperative learning settings in order to pave the way to a to-the-point introduction to CTBL, my instructional catalyst. The chapter also discusses – at length – distinguishing features and characteristics of my approach with reference to the present methods and approaches like CLT and particularly CL methods. The chapter throws light on the mechanisms underlying the implementation of CTBL in real classroom situations and illustrates presentations and classroom techniques in classes where this approach may be applied by teachers. It also highlights the kind of objectives, syllabi, materials, tasks, and activities proposed for CTBL. Teachers’ roles as well as students’ responsibilities in CTBL situations have also found a place in this chapter. More importantly, the chapter gives a glimpse of the significance of my pedagogical approach for today world context of globalisation, which is highly competitive.
The 6th chapter underscores salient features of CTBL in an attempt to give a more clear portrayal of my world-class approach to ELT/Education. It, for instance, gives a glimpse of the significance of interpersonal skills, mutual face-to-face promotive interaction, and (continuity of) team processing, and highlights the importance of adherence of all class participants to the CTBL culture. The strategies which could be applied for ensuring positive interdependence, individual accountability, equal participation, and simultaneous interaction of all team members have also been elaborated. The chapter also differentiates different criteria for team formation and sheds light on the distinguishing features of team formation plan in CTBL situations. Most importantly, the chapter explicates CTBL teachers’ roles, both at class and at global level.
Chapter 7 intends to put forward certain techniques for boosting the effectiveness of CTBL. It also suggests some relaxing but influential activities for accelerating further the efficiency of teamwork in classes run through CTBL. Importantly, this chapter puts forward a comprehensive introduction to students’ responsibilities in CTBL settings.
Chapter 8 serves as a platform to precisely substantiate the success of CTBL as an effective strategic socio/edu-political instructional approach. To that end, it lays out part of the (didactic) theories and hypotheses - both in general education and in ELT - which in one way or another delineate, confirm, and support the mechanisms under which successful (language) learning/living occurs and then tries to correlate them to the components, mechanisms, and objectives of CTBL. My "Multiple Input-Output Hypothesis" and, more importantly, my "Cognitive Socio-Political Language Learning Theory" have also been thrown into sharp relief. The bridging the gap between theory and practice in this chapter, would, i hope, enable educators to better recognize the true essence of my approach and consequently his pivotal significance especially for today world context not only as a sophisticated, modern, super-flexible, inclusive, and relevant and realistic approach to ELT/Education, but as a 'weapon' as well. The chapter eloquently implies how my ‘unique’ instructional innovation is, in the last analysis, an approach to the liberation and empowerment of the Other/the oppressed and, in point of fact, an approach to the elimination of dictatorship and apartheid.
Considering the multitude of benefits (language) learners could derive from an online technology-enriched curriculum, the task of the application of such technologies in classes/courses run through CTBL is a challenge that must be addressed. The ninth chapter, as such, suggests the inclusion of online technology, as an effective educational apparatus, into CTBL language classes/courses via a concrete plan of action. The Chapter also gives glimpse of the emerging online technologies and presents pragmatic guidelines for successful implementation of such innovations. Educational institutes – from primary to post secondary – could consider the proposed programme for enhancing the attainment of CTBL/their educational objectives. The project may also be implemented state-/country-wise.
Chapter 10 presents an overview of evaluation of CL (methods) done by researchers throughout the last decades with reference to eight distinct domains of research. These domains include
1. General education,
2. Language learning,
3. Reading comprehension,
4. (Language) learning strategies,
5. Attitudes of students,
6. Retention of information,
7. Undergraduate learners, and
8. The kind of inter-group interdependence.
Of these, i will briefly survey the first six, and pay closer attention to the remaining two, which are more directly relevant to current research on CL methods. The last part focuses upon research findings which are divergent vis-à-vis efficacy of CL methods.
Chapter 11 is an attempt to bring to the fore my MA and PhD level research findings regarding the effectiveness of my instructional innovation in comparison to the TLM as well as to the most popular method of CL which has been developed by Johnson and Johnson at the University of Minnesota in the USA. More importantly, the Chapter elaborates the reasons as to why CTBL has been more effective than the traditional methods even in the arena of CL methods in terms of his contribution to effective learning. The chapter then substantiates the relevance of my pedagogical approach against the backdrop of ongoing globalisation, which means a great deal of competitive spirit in the present world context. It does so in order to bring to sharp relief the significance of my approach in comparison to the present immaterial methods and approaches like CLT, Collaborative Learning, Interactive Learning, and CL methods for today world context.
The 12th Chapter presents a cogent and critical analysis and comparison of CTBL and other popular methods and approaches in the arena of Education in general and ELT in particular in terms of their distinguishing features and characteristics. Among such methods and approaches are ALM, CLT, Collaborative Learning, Interactive Learning, and CL/methods. A synthesis of the distinguishing drawbacks of the comparison methods and approaches is part of the chapter. The chapter also explicates how my ‘unique’ educational approach is, in the last analysis, an approach to human prosperity and world peace. I hope this chapter would contribute to making a sound decision on a method/approach for the benefit of today Education regimes.
In the light of the importance attributed to interactive methods and approaches and particularly CTBL, suggestions to prospective stakeholders (viz. policy makers, resource material developers, syllabus designers, methodologists, teachers, test constructers and examiners and researchers) have been put forth in the last chapter, Chapter 13. The contribution of this volume to new knowledge and information on the subject in question and the journey or evolution CTBL vis-à-vis ELT/Education is likely to take in the near future is indicated. Some pragmatic guidelines for the inclusion of a head university for promoting the quality of ELT particularly in undeveloped and developing countries have also been provided in this last chapter of the book.
Appendices, a detailed bibliography of the select list of books, articles, journals, internet- resources, and the index have also been included, at the end of the present volume, for the benefit of students, teachers, and researchers. Finally, as noted, you will not get a comprehensive picture of my message unless you go through the 'Epilogue', and even 'Appendices'.
They mask who we truly are. The paradox of living is that those who are most confused themselves and who lack real purpose in their lives often are the very people who burden others with their unrealistic expectations. --Anonymous